ХРОМОСОМНАЯ ИНЖЕНЕРИЯ РАСТЕНИЙ – НАПРАВЛЕНИЕ БИОТЕХНОЛОГИИ

CC BY - Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International

RAI : 20.500.11925/873045

Год создания: 2014
Дата публикации в реестре: 25.08.2017


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<p align="LEFT">Биотехнология как наука о практическом применении знаний о биологических процессах и достижениях биологии находится в постоянном развитии<span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">. </span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA">В историческом смысле </span></span>биотехнология возникла тогда<span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">, </span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA">когда дрожжи </span></span>и бактерии впервые стали использовать для производства продуктов <span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">(</span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA">хлебопечение</span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">, </span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA">пи</span></span>воварение<span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">, </span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA">виноделие</span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">, </span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA">производство лекарств </span></span>и т<span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">. </span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA">д</span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">.)</span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">.</span></span></p><p align="LEFT">В современном понимании <em><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPS-ItalicMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPS-ItalicMT; font-size: medium;">биотехнология </span></span></em><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">– </span></span>это совокупность технологий и методов<span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">, </span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA">ис</span></span>пользующих живые организмы <span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">(</span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA">или их части</span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">) </span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA">и </span></span>биологические процессы для производства или модификации различных продуктов<span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">, </span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA">улучшения </span></span>свойств экономически ценных видов растений и животных<span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">, </span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA">а также микроорганизмов</span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">, </span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA">спо</span></span>собных оказывать определенное воздействие на окружающую среду<span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">.</span></span></p><p align="LEFT">Термин <span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">«</span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA">биотехнология</span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">» </span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA">введен в </span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">1917 </span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA">г</span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">. </span></span>венгерским инженером Карлом Эреки для описания крупномасштабного получения свинины (<span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA">конечный продукт</span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">) </span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA">с использованием дешевой </span></span>сахарной свеклы <span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">(</span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA">сырье</span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">) </span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA">в качестве корма для </span></span>животных <span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">(</span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA">биотрансформация</span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">). </span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA">В более широ</span></span>ком понимании этот термин стали использовать в <span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">70-</span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA">е годы </span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">XX </span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA">столетия</span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">.</span></span></p><p align="LEFT">К отраслям народного хозяйства<span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">, </span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA">потреб</span></span>ности которых обеспечивает биотехнология<span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">, </span></span>относятся<span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">: </span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA">медицина</span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">, </span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA">сельское</span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">, </span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA">лесное</span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">, </span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA">рыбное </span></span>хозяйства<span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">, </span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA">пищевая промышленность</span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">, </span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA">произ</span></span>водство химических веществ<span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">, </span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA">материаловеде</span></span>ние<span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">, </span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA">экология</span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">, </span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA">электронное машиностроение</span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">, </span></span>энергетика и т<span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">. </span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA">д</span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">. </span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA">В качестве биологических </span></span>систем в биотехнологии используют микробиологические системы<span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">, </span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA">соматические клетки </span></span>млекопитающих<span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">, </span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA">культуры изолированных </span></span>клеток<span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">, </span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;" lang="JA">органы и ткани растений</span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT; font-size: medium;">.</span></span></p>

Язык:
rus

Тип:
Научные статьи

Банк знаний:
Научные журналы на платформе Elpub

Источник:
Вавиловский журнал генетики и селекции




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